Copyright 1996 by the CREATION RESEARCH SOCIETY (CRS), Inc.
   *Creation Research Society Quarterly*, Volume 33, Number 3
                        (December, 1996)
note: Article titles are in quotes. 
      Abstracts are enclosed by [[ ]].
"A Theory for the Volcanic Origin of Radioactive Shales and 
Clays: Examples from the Southeastern United States." by Carl F. 
Froede, Jr., B.S., P.G., pp. 160-168.
[[ An explanation is offered, within the young-earth Flood model, 
for the origin of radioactive shales and clays via the alteration 
of volcaniclastic material (ash deposits) which contain 
radioactive elements.  This is based on the similarity of 
radioactive elements identified as leaching from altered volcanic 
ash deposits in the western United States.  The Southeastern 
United States has many marine organic rich "black" shales, 
massive clays, and sandstone layers which contain radioactive 
elements at levels significantly higher than the surrounding 
strata.  The radioactivity associated with those clastics is 
derived from several radioactive isotopes including uranium 
(234U), thorium (232Th), potassium (40K), and radium (226Ra).  
Two specific stratigraphic units, the Chattanooga Shale of 
Tennessee and various clay units within the massive clastic 
deposits of the Hawthorn Group of west central Florida, are 
proposed as examples where radioactive volcaniclastics have 
altered in-situ to yield radioactive shales, clays. ]]
"Observations of Fossil Material and Charcoalized Wood in the 
Dakota Formation in Colorado and Wyoming." by Edmond W. Holroyd, 
III, Ph.D. pp. 170-175.
[[ The plant and trace fossils of Dinosaur Ridge, Morrison, 
Colorado, are given further descriptions.  Most of the plant 
fossils in this outcrop of the Dakota Formation are in the form 
of broken pieces of charcoal or as casts, which often record the 
wood grain.  Charcoal fragments mixed within the sand are 
interpreted as being deposited under catastrophic conditions.  
Rocks containing the charcoal along bedding planes are 
interpreted as being deposited under conditions slow enough to 
allow buoyancy to separate the plant matter from the rock 
   Charcoal fragments were also present in the upper third of the 
Dakota Formation in the local region near Dinosaur Ridge, at 
Canon City, Montrose, and Fort Collins, Colorado, and at 
Newcastle, Wyoming.  The charcoal appears to be catastrophically 
deposited in the region of Dinosaur Ridge and at Newcastle.  
Further observations and research may fit these widespread 
deposits into the middle to upper part of Flood strata. ]]
"Catastrophism and Modern Geology: Modeling the Placer Generation 
Process." by Alexander V. Lalomov, Ph.D. and Serguei E. 
Tabolitch, pp. 186-190.
[[ We present a mathematical model for coastal submarine placer 
(CSP) generation under lateral coastal drift conditions.  We test 
the model against field data and propose a method of predicting 
CSP parameters which has possible economic application for 
locating placer deposits.  The model provides a method to 
estimate the time and rate of CSP formation.  The model yields an 
age for a tin-bearing sediment in northeastern Siberia to be less 
than 40,000 years.  This estimate is approximately 1000 times 
less than age given by the standard evolutionary geology time 
scale.  A logical extension of this work is to two and three 
dimensions.  This would make possible more detailed comparison of 
the models with field data and produce improved methods for 
estimating placer parameters. ]]
"The Sands of Time: A Biblical Model of Deep Sea-Floor 
Sedimentation." by Larry Vardiman, Ph.D., pp. 191-198
[[ Modern evolutionism requires that the earth be very old.  One 
line of evidence cited is the length of time required to deposit 
the observed thickness of sea-floor sediments far from any direct 
continental source.  Using the low current depositional rates 
results in a minimum age of tens of millions of years.  The model 
of deposition presented in this paper differs from the 
conventional model primarily in the rate of deposition, which is 
asserted to have peaked at an enormous level during and after the 
biblical Flood and is presumed to have fallen at an exponential 
rate to the present low level.  Because biblical evidence 
strongly supports a short historical period between the Flood and 
the present, the shape of the decay curve is very steep.  Data 
from the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) were reinterpreted for 
this paper.  By estimating the thickness of sediment 
corresponding to this interval and asserting a set of boundary 
conditions, an analytical model is presented that estimates the 
age of sediment from a particular depth at a given borehole.
   If the modern evolutionary model of deposition is correct, the 
water temperature evidenced by fossils would show only small, 
random variations.  If a catastrophic event such as the Flood 
occurred, temporary warming of the water immediately after the 
catastrophe should have occurred and may be detectable.  Fossil 
evidence of water temperature at the time of deposition is 
believed by some researchers to correlate with the ratio of 
oxygen isotopes of mass 16 and 18.  Because foraminifera are 
common in both present-day and ancient sediments and contain 
oxygen in their carbonate skeletal remains, they are often 
analyzed for the oxygen isotope ratio and an inferred water 
temperature is calculated.  Based on DSDP data from selected 
boreholes, and plotted on a time scale modified by the analytical 
model derived in this paper, a general cooling trend appears 
plausible from the limited dataset. ]]
"An Introduction to Modern Uniformitarian and Catastrophic Plate 
Tectonic Concepts." by John K. Reed, Ph.D.; Chris B. Bennett, 
B.S.; Carl R. Froede, Jr., B.S., P.G.; Michael J. Oard, M.S.; and 
John Woodmorappe, M.S., pp. 202-210.
[[ Within the last 35 years, a revolution in geology has occurred 
through the advent, acceptance, and application of the unifying 
geodynamic theory of plate tectonics.  Acceptance of plate 
tectonics followed the development of post-World War II 
geophysical datasets.  The concept has proven popular both in and 
out of the geologic profession, as evidenced by its ubiquitous 
presence in earth science teaching at all levels, and its 
presentation in popular media.  Plate tectonic interpretations 
are not restricted to uniformitarian geology.  Recent 
publications advocate derivative catastrophist interpretations of 
plate tectonics.
   Catastrophist and uniformitarian interpretations share many 
premises and conclusions.  Therefore a concise analysis of more 
voluminous evidence for and against uniformitarian plate 
tectonics can be used as a shortcut to assess the credibility of 
catastrophic plate tectonics.  Ongoing questions regarding 
uniformitarian plate tectonics offer reasons for skepticism of 
catastrophic plate tectonics until a more thorough evaluation is 
complete. ]]
"A Biblical Christian Framework for Earth History Research: Part 
II -- Foundation and Method of Historical Analysis within the 
Biblical Christian System." by John K. Reed, Ph.D., pp. 210-216.
[[ Although the naturalist-uniformitarian system and its 
derivative view of earth history are demonstrably invalid, a 
biblical Christian substitute is not logically a de facto 
replacement.  It must first succeed at the points of failure of 
the naturalist system.  In this paper I attempt to show that the 
biblical Christian system is successful in passing these tests as 
it demonstrates internal consistency in developing a framework 
within which historical analysis can take place.  Additionally, 
the epistemological framework of the system is shown to integrate 
geological models of earth history, separable from the system, in 
a comprehensive approach to historical analysis. ]]
= "The Enigma of Sex and Evolution." by Jerry Bergman, Ph.D., pp. 
[[ A severe problem for evolution theory is to explain the 
evolution of sexual reproduction and behavior.  The theories 
proposed include dual evolution, i.e., the sexes evolved 
separately but greatly influenced each other's evolution.  
Another major theory is sexual selection, a process by which 
organisms directly influence each other's evolution.  The 
creationist model proposes that the sexes were designed to be 
physically and mentally compatible with each other, and for 
humans a harmonious physical and mental relationship will result 
if the couple lives in harmony with the physical and mental 
constraints of this design. ]]
= "Can Evolutionists Now Explain the Earth's Magnetic Field?" by 
D. Russell Humphreys, Ph.D., pp. 184-185.
= "CRSQ Volume 25: A Look Back." by Emmett L. Williams, Ph.D., 
pp. 198-200.
= "The Return of Lake Manly, Death Valley, California?" by Carl 
F. Froede, Jr., B.S., P.G., pp. 224-228.
= "President's Remarks." by Emmett L. Williams, p. 157.
= "Editors' Comments." by Gene Chaffin and George Howe, p. 158.
= "In Memoriam -- John W. Klotz." by Robert E. Gentet and David 
A. Kaufmann, p. 159.
= "Lab Director's Report: Creation Research Society -- A Unique 
Scientific Society." by John R. Meyer, p. 201.
= "Photo Essay -- Pig or Peccary?" by Emmett L. Williams, p. 229.
= "Historical Seismic Activity in Florida." by Brian R. Rucker, 
p. 157.
= "A Re-evaluation of Genesis 8:1-3." by Everett H. Peterson, p. 
= "Sudden Appearance of the Immune System in Sharks." by Wayne 
Frair, p. 169.
= "Tropical Storm Alberto, 1994: Some Catastrophic Geologic 
Consequences in Georgia." by Emmett L. Williams, Thomas L. Bruce, 
and Jack R. Carson, p. 175.
= "Rapid Delta Formation -- Coastal Louisiana." by Emmett L. 
Williams, p. 178.
= "The Red Fox in Montana and Alberta and the Uniformitarian 
Geologic Column." by Peter Klevberg, p. 190.
= "Source of Flood Water." by R.H. Brown, p. 216.
BOOK REVIEW (reviewer)
= "The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind" by Mark Noll (John 
Goertzen>, p. 182-184.
     This issue of the Creation Research Society Quarterly has a
varied and rich range of subjects reflecting the increased
interest in creation worldviews that we have been experiencing
recently.  In keeping with tradition, all articles and Panorama
Notes accepted for publication are subjected to peer review.  The
editor obtains the opinions of the peer reviewers as a precaution
to ensure that the material in the Quarterly is technically
correct, and that it conforms to the type of subject matter that
is appropriate for a Creation Research Society publication. 
However, the viewpoints expressed in the articles are often those
of the authors and not necessarily those of the editors, of the
CRS Board, or of the members in general.  For example, in this
issue we have an article by five authors, with impressive
credentials, which urges caution with respect to the adoption of
plate tectonics paradigms within young-earth creationism.  While
most would agree that caution is necessary, there are other
authors, with impeccable credentials, who are more in favor of
adopting catastrophic plate tectonics models, within the young-
earth framework.
     Three other full-length articles in this issue treat the
sedimentation process within catastrophic models involving the
Genesis Flood.  The article by Dr. Edmond Holroyd, III involves
detailed field work studying the deposition of charcoal together
with sand and other sediments, and possible explanations which
seem to require rapid processes.  Two Russian geologists offer a
mathematical study of the time scale involved in the deposition
of tin placer deposits, principally on the Arctic coast of
Russia.  In the same vein, Dr. Larry Vardiman offers a study of
process rates for the deposit of sediments on the ocean floor,
together with data indicating the temperatures of the water over
time.  All three of these articles provide evidence that the
young-earth time frame is capable of handling these data.
     Geologist Dr. John Reed continues his series on the
philosophical basis of creation-oriented geology.  Readers will
appreciate the way he points out the features of the geological
record which the creation record can explain.
     Dr. Jerry Bergman, in his typically thorough and wide-
ranging style, provides an interesting study of how the origin of
sex is better explained by invoking a designer than by appealing
to a random process of selection pressures.
     Other short features, too numerous to mention, are included
in this issue, and we hope that the increased interest in
contributing to the creation viewpoint will continue.  We also
trust that the readers and the authors of the CRS Quarterly will
redouble their efforts to promote this magazine because it
contains scientific evidence supporting the belief that God
created many separate kinds, that He did this with amazing
rapidity, and that He did so quite recently.  Our attempts to
stand for God's truth in origins can be very important at a time
like this when even religious leaders are capitulating needlessly
to evolutionism.
      --  Eugene F. Chaffin, Ph.D. and George F. Howe, Ph.D.
file: /pub/resources/text/crs/crsq: sum33_3.txt

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