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Con nuestros más cordiales saludos, participamos a nuestros suscriptores los materiales de reciente incorporación a nuestro sitio Web. Aunque no tratan de temas de la más reciente actualidad, sí que ofrecen un material de interés permanente y útil para toda clase de público. No olvide consultar la sección en inglés si conoce dicho idioma.
INDICE CASTELLANO - ENGLISH INDEX
ARTICULOS / ENSAYOS:
Religiones orientales y Cristianismo
- Historia de la Iglesia - Una breve sinopsis de la historia pública de la Iglesia
- La Esperanza Actual de la Iglesia - Profecías que la establecen
-Evolution, Creation, First Amendment Subject of Roundtable
-The Sky Is Not Falling: Did Kansas Ban Evolution?
-The Problem of the Second Law
-ON THE Y2K BUG:
ARTÍCULOS / ENSAYOS
RELIGIONES ORIENTALES Y CRISTIANISMO
--Reseña de la conferencia de Rabindranath R. Maharaj en la Casa de la Cultura, c/. Hospital 6, Gerona, España. el 12 de noviembre de 1996, a las 19 horas.
por Santiago Escuain
Rabindranath Maharaj es el descendiente de una larga línea de sacerdotes brahmanes y recibió instrucción como yogui. Su abuelo había sido gran sacerdote en la ciudad santa de Benares, en la India, y su padre había sido un yogui y guru adorado por sus seguidores. Rabindranath siguió sus pasos, y ya de pequeño meditaba muchas horas diarias, experimentando con frecuencia fenómenos psíquicos. Muerto su padre, en su adolescencia cumplió la predicción de pandits y astrólogos en el sentido de que sería un gran guru hindú. Tenía un gran número de seguidores que lo adoraban como un avatar y que le presentaban ofrendas.
En su instrucción llegó a conocer profundamente los Vedas, las escrituras sagradas de los hindúes. Por todo ello está extraordinariamente calificado para exponer esos temas. Acerca de los mismos ha dado clases y conferencias en universidades por todo el mundo.
Hemos incorporado dos libros a nuestro sitio Web: "Historia de la Iglesia", de Price, un interesante y equilibrado bosquejo de historia de la iglesia, y "La Esperanza Actual de la Iglesia", de J. N. Darby, y que es un verdadero clásico de la exposición de la profecía. Tenemos en proyecto la adición de más interesantes libros, de lo que iremos informando oportunamente.
Una breve sinopsis de la historia pública de la Iglesia
o, para Acrobat Reader, listo para su impresión:
El objetivo de esta sinopsis sigue siendo el de siempre, esto es, presentar de una manera tan breve y concisa como lo pueda permitir un tema tan amplio, un bosquejo de la historia pública de la iglesia desde Pentecostés hasta nuestros días. No pretende en ningún sentido competir con las obras existentes acerca de este tema, pero puede resultar de utilidad para aquellos que, deseando este conocimiento, puedan verse con dificultades para obtener los libros, y todavía más dificultad para encontrar el tiempo para leerlos.
No se pretende originalidad alguna, porque se han empleado libremente todos los datos, y en algunos casos las mismas expresiones, procedentes de los escritos de otros. Sin embargo, se ha tenido gran cuidado para asegurar la exactitud de todo lo que se expone, y para impedir impresiones erróneas debidas a lo condensado de este relato.
Ciertos hechos o citas que tienen que ver con el tema pero que difícilmente podrían formar parte de la Sinopsis central, han sido añadidos en forma de Apéndice, y se han insertado en el texto las notas refiriéndose a ellos.
Finalmente, se podrá observar que en ocasiones se emplea la palabra asamblea en lugar de iglesia. Es una traducción literal del griego original, que realmente significa un grupo de personas llamadas afuera. Este término no admite equívocos con ningún edificio material.
LA ESPERANZA ACTUAL DE LA IGLESIA
- PROFECÍAS QUE LA ESTABLECEN
La Iglesia de Dios: ¿Cuál fue su origen? ¿cuál es su naturaleza, y cuál su destino? ¿Qué propósitos tiene Dios para con ella? Cuál es su relación o distinción con Israel? ¿Qué hay de la Segunda Venida de Cristo? ¿Qué es la Primera Resurrección?
Estos y otros temas son tratados con profundidad y esmero en esta serie de conferencias que fueron pronunciadas por John N. Darby en 1840, hace pues ya 150 años, en la ciudad de Ginebra. Las conferencias tuvieron un enorme impacto, y el libro producto de las mismas hizo época, dirigiendo los pensamientos de muchos creyentes a las enseñanzas de la Escritura acerca de la verdadera naturaleza y vocación de la Iglesia, y su esperanza. Por fin la lengua castellana tiene a su disposición esta obra fundamental, breve en extensión, pero con un contenido verdaderamente vital para la enseñanza de la verdadera esperanza de la Iglesia.
Estas conferencias poseen una calidad muy especial, de gran profundidad doctrinal y práctica a la vez. Este libro es un clásico en el estudio de la Iglesia y de su esperanza, en el estudio de Israel y su llamamiento y futuro y en el estudio del papel y del futuro de las Naciones, exponiendo de una manera luminosa los principios de la Palabra de Dios acerca de estas cuestiones.
Su resultado es que impulsa al creyente a ajustar su vida a las realidades de la vocación con que ha sido llamado. Presenta con un peculiar apremio la gran realidad del Dios soberano de la historia, del Dios fiel a Sus promesas, del Dios que mandará a Jesucristo, como Rey de reyes y Señor de los que gobiernan, para recoger a Su Iglesia, juzgar a las naciones, y recoger y salvar al remanente de Israel, y a cumplir todas las promesas dadas a Abraham, Isaac, Jacob y David.
En esta obra también se muestra, frente a aquella actitud que quisiera desprestigiar su estudio, la vital necesidad de considerar atentamente la palabra profética, «a la cual hacéis bien en estar atentos como a una antorcha que alumbra en lugar oscuro, hasta que el día esclarezca y el lucero de la mañana salga en vuestros corazones» (1 P 1:19), a fin de mantenernos más y más cerca de Aquel que dijo: «Yo soy la raíz y el linaje de David, la estrella resplandeciente de la mañana ... Ciertamente vengo en breve» (Ap 22:16, 20). Amén; sí, ven, Señor Jesús.
IMPORTANTE!! No olvide visitar el indice de documentos en .PDF para Acrobat Reader, donde encontrara interesantes documentos ya listos para su impresion.
ARTICLES / ESSAYS
Although this belongs to an event already past, the following press release is full of interest:
Evolution, Creation, First Amendment Subject of Roundtable
Kansas Again Focus of Debate Over Differing Views on Evolution Theory in Science Classes To: National Desk, Education, Religion and Science reporters
Contact: Rob Crowther of Discovery Institute Fellows, 206-292-0401, ext. 107; Web site: http://www.discovery.org or Dena Anson of Washburn University, 785-231-1010, ext. 1711
TOPEKA, Kan., Oct. 25 /U.S. Newswire/ -- Viewpoint discrimination, academic freedom and free speech will be on center stage Thursday, Nov. 4, when several of the nation's top scientists and legal experts will come face-to-face to discuss the issue of teaching evolution.
Discovery Institute Fellows Dr. Jonathan Wells, Dr. Steve Meyer and Dr. David De Wolf have been invited to participate in a special roundtable discussion "Creation, Evolution and The First Amendment," at 7 p.m., Thursday, Nov. 4, in White Concert Hall on the Washburn University campus, in Topeka, Kan.
In August 1999, the Kansas State Board of Education adopted a new set of science standards that de-emphasized the teaching of evolution in Kansas public schools. The constitutional issues related to this decision will be explored by a panel of nationally recognized authorities during this special roundtable discussion.
"Public schools have no business indoctrinating students in biblical religion," states biologist Dr. Jonathan Wells. "But they also have no business indoctrinating students in a materialistic philosophy that claims to be scientific but ignores contrary evidence. In science classes, students should be taught the essentials of Darwin's theory, the evidence for it, and the evidence against it."
Around the country public school teachers who dare even to broach the subject, and to "teach the controversy" (without advocating a position) have come under attack for their teaching methods. And such attacks are frequently instigated by threats from the ACLU, the supposed defenders of free speech.
"Threats from the ACLU in this context are particularly Orwellian," says Jay Richards, program director for the Center for Renewal of Science and Culture. "To threaten teachers and school districts for this is to defend the notion that science teachers can only teach a dogmatic Darwinian orthodoxy. That doesn't sound like civil liberty to me."
Scientists at Discovery's Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture argue on a scientific basis rather than a religious one that design theory better answers questions of origin than does neo-Darwinism.
"Many American educators have been led to believe -- mistakenly -- that Darwinian evolution is non-controversial and that it is illegal to encourage students to question it," explains Wells. "The result has been widespread indoctrination of students in a viewpoint that actually conflicts with the scientific evidence."
Panelists from the disciplines of science, philosophy and law will participate as will two members of the Kansas Board of Education. Serving as moderator will be Topeka attorney Pedro Irigonegaray. Former Kansas Supreme Court Justice Harold Hurd will act as legal historian.
Participants include: -- Steve Abrams, member, Kansas Board of Education, and veterinarian, Arkansas City; -- David K. DeWolf, fellow, Center for Renewal of Science and Culture, Discovery Institute, and professor, Gonzaga University School of Law, Spokane, Wash.; -- Stephen C. Meyer, director, Center for Renewal of Science and Culture, Discovery Institute, and associate professor, philosophy, Whitworth College, Spokane, Wash.; -- Tim Miller, professor, religious studies, The University of Kansas, Lawrence; -- Robert M. O'Neil, director, Thomas Jefferson Center for the Protection of Free Expression, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.; -- John R. Staver, professor, education (science), and director, Center for Science Education, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kan.; -- Bill Wagnon, professor, history, Washburn University, and member, Kansas State Board of Education, Topeka, Kan.; and -- Jonathan Wells, senior fellow, Center for Renewal of Science and Culture, Discovery Institute, Seattle, Wash., and post-doctoral researcher, University of California, Berkeley.
The event will conclude with a question and answer period and members of the audience will have the opportunity to submit questions. The event will be webcast live on the Internet via RealAudio from 7-11 p.m. at www.washburn.edu/creation-evolution. Doors will open at 6:30 p.m. No admission will be charged, but a ticket is required for admission.
For more information regarding the event, call the Washburn office of informational services, 785-231-1010, ext. 1154, or at www.washburn.edu/creation-evolution. If you'd like to interview Wells, Meyer or DeWolf, contact Rob Crowther at Discovery Institute, 206-292-0401, ext. 107.
------ Discovery Institute is a non-profit, non-partisan public policy think tank based in Seattle, Wash., dealing with national and international affairs. For more information, browse Discovery's Web site at http://www.discovery.org or call 206-292-0401.
/U.S. Newswire 202-347-2770/10/25 14:57
The Sky Is Not Falling: Did Kansas Ban Evolution?
BY: Nancy Pearcey FOR: Jubilee, Fall 1999
Listening to the Chicken Littles in the press, you'd think the sky had fallen in Kansas. Ever since the Board of Education voted to exclude evolution from state guidelines, handwringing articles have decried the "gutting" of education by "enemies of science." The governor is threatening to disband the democratically elected board; lawsuits are in the works.
But let's sort out the facts: What did the board actually do? The controversy began when Kansas rejected sections of a national standard issued by the National Academy of Sciences. Contrary to hysterical reports, the board did not ban evolution from the classroom. In fact, the new guidelines substantially INCREASE coverage of the topic. The board merely decided not to include evolution in state competency tests-by implication, not treating it as a fact beyond dispute.
The vote is best understood as a courageous stand for academic freedom-for giving students the right to examine all the evidence on a contested issue.
Christians everywhere need to make it clear that we want MORE taught in the classroom, not less. Of course students should learn about Darwinian theory and the evidence supporting it. But they should also learn the evidence AGAINST it, the problems and controversies.
Let's teach students about the Cambrian explosion, when all the basic blueprints for animal life appeared suddenly in the fossil record-contradicting the theory of slow, gradual evolution. Let's teach about the "gaps" in the fossil record, the pervasive pattern of sudden appearance of new life forms followed by stasis-contradicting the theory of continuous evolutionary change. Let's teach what the discovery of DNA implies: that at the core of life is a language, a message-and messages are not created by physical-chemical forces, any more than this article was created by chemical forces in the paper and ink.
Let's teach students to decipher conflicting usages of the term evolution. No one denies the fact of limited, cyclical variation, represented by dog breeds, crop varieties, and insect resistance to pesticides-sometimes called "microevolution." What is problematic is "macroevolution," the conjecture that these minor variations are unlimited and directional, capable of producing dogs and corn and insects in the first place.
Let's tell students how textbooks often misrepresent evidence for evolution-like the "evidence" of the peppered moths. The standard theory is that as the tree trunks were darkened by industrial pollution, lighter moths were picked off by birds, while darker forms proliferated-a showcase example of natural selection. But a startling article in The Scientist (May 1999) reveals that peppered moths don't even rest on tree trunks and that the photos were staged: Scientists glued dead moths onto the trees.
Or consider the Galapagos finches that greatly influenced Darwin's own thinking. In the Wall Street Journal (August 16, 1999), Berkeley law professor Phillip Johnson notes that a 1977 drought killed most of the finches, leaving survivors whose average beak size was slightly larger (presumably they could eat the tough seeds that remained). A few years later, after a flood, beak sizes returned to normal. A clear case of limited, cyclical change. Yet, astonishingly, a 1998 publication of the National Academy of Sciences fails to mention the return to normal-and even encourages teachers to speculate what might happen should the trend toward larger beaks continue for centuries: Would a "new species of finch" arise?
"When our leading scientists have to resort to have to the sort of distortion that would land a stock promoter in jail," Johnson comments, "you know they are in trouble."
Given the paucity of evidence, one suspects that the underlying reason many scientists cling so tenaciously to Darwinism is philosophical: If one could explain the PHYSICAL universe by completely material, purposeless causes, that would support the METAphysical claim that there is no overarching purpose or design. It's this metaphysical claim that makes Darwinism so unpalatable to the public.
For it is not only fundamentalist extremists who say Darwinism has atheistic implications. Many respected Darwinists agree. Francisco Ayala of the University of California says Darwinism is controversial precisely because it "exclude[s] God as the explanation accounting for the obvious design of organisms." Tufts philosopher Daniel Dennett praises Darwinism as a "universal acid" that dissolves away traditional religion and morality. Cornell biologist William Provine says consistent Darwinism means "no ultimate foundation for ethics; no ultimate meaning for life; no free will."
Precisely right. Creation is the foundation of the Christian worldview; if it falls, so does everything else. If God created us for a purpose, then morality is the guidebook telling us how to fit in to that purpose. But if we are products of mindless, material forces, then there is no purpose, no basis for morality. Religion and morality are merely ideas that appear in the human mind once it has evolved to a certain level. So the fundamental question is stark and simple: Did God create us, or did we create the idea of God?
Contrary to what critics say, protesters of Darwinism are not trying to inject religion into the classroom. Instead, they're trying to get people to see that Darwinism ALREADY injects a religious message into the classroom: They're asking that those atheistic implications be discussed openly-and that alternative scientific theories be considered, such as intelligent design.
Invoking design is not just shorthand for saying, "God did it." Design is a testable concept. Consider an illustration: If you are vacationing and see the faces of four presidents carved into Mt. Rushmore, you don't say, "Look what interesting shapes can be created by water and wind erosion." Instead, you recognize evidence of a pre-determined pattern. Similarly, archeologists run tests to determine whether what they've unearthed is just a rock or a tool chipped by an ancient hunter. Police run tests to determine whether a person died of natural causes or an intentional act (murder).
Likewise in the study of living things, design can be empirically detected. In fact, evidence for design is so ubiquitous that Oxford biologist Richard Dawkins defines biology itself as "the study of complicated things that give the appearance of having been designed for a purpose." Like all Darwinists, Dawkins tries to explain away that "appearance" as REALLY the result of purposeless, natural forces. But why not take the evidence at face value and conclude there is real design?
Phillip Johnson cites a Chinese paleontologist who commented, "In China, we can criticize Darwin, but not the government. In America, you can criticize the government, but not Darwin." Allowing students to grapple with the whole range of theories, along with their philosophical implications, is simply good pedagogy. It would train students in critical thinking and thaw the icy grip of dogmatism on the biology classroom-injecting science education with a new sense of intellectual adventure.
From Jubilee (Fall 1999). Copyright 1999 by Prison Fellowship Ministries.
Reprinted with permission.
THE PROBLEM OF THE SECOND LAW
A short letter on The Second Law of Thermodynamics and the origin of organized systems--
There is a well known quote by Harold J. Morowitz, "the second Law as applied to biology has a long history rich in confusion". (Most citations omitted for brevity, supplied on request.) Not so well known is the fact that he has contributed significantly to this confusion. The very first sentence in his "Energy Flow in Biology" states: "The purpose of this book is to discuss and present evidence for the general thesis that THE FLOW OF ENERGY THROUGH A SYSTEM ACTS TO ORGANIZE THAT SYSTEM" (Caps in lieu of italics in the original) This sentence is followed by 170 pages of very interesting material including many thermodynamic equations. His second sentence reveals his purpose: "The motivation for this approach is biological and has its origins in an attempt to find a physical rationale for the extremely high degree of molecular order encountered in living systems".
Unwilling to allow for an Intelligent Designer, his entire book attempts valiantly to defend his defective initial thesis. The flow of energy through a system most certainly does not act to organize that system! To me it is another example of a brilliant biologist whistling in the dark because he's afraid there might be an Intelligent Designer.
Similar flaws are to be found in his "Mayonnaise and the Origin of Life" and "The Thermodynamics of Pizza". Both are highly entertaining and well-written, but you have to tiptoe through the tulips.
A closely related flaw is to be found in the popular writings of many biologists. They quote one definition of the second law, noted by David, that "in an isolated (or closed) system, any spontaneous process will result in an increase in entropy". ("Isolated" systems do not allow exchange of matter or heat energy with their surroundings; "closed" systems do not allow matter to enter or leave, but small amounts of heat energy might. For obvious reasons, this distinction is not always observed in the literature.) Both isolated and closed systems are theoretical constructs, impossible to actually build. No thermal insulation is good enough, and you'd need a lot of lead to stop the neutrinos from entering your system.
Many biologists have jumped to the conclusion that the second law "applies" only to closed or isolated systems, and since the earth is an open system, anything can happen, especially if you have billions of years to spend waiting. Asimov was the most sarcastic writer I've encountered in his anti-creationist remarks. In his History of Physics, he notes, "You must remember that the laws of thermodynamics apply to closed systems only. If we consider an open system, it is only too simple to find examples of apparent decreases in entropy", and in another book, states, "Scientists, however, do know about the second law and they are not blind. It's just that an argument based on kindergarten terms is suitable only for kindergartens. To lift the argument a notch above the kindergarten level, the second law of thermodynamics applies to a "closed system...."
Saying the second law applies only to closed systems, none of which exist, is saying it never applies, which is absurd in the extreme.
In my book, "Law's of Physics, Law's of God", (Now almost ready for submission to a publisher!) I refer to several thermodynamicists who derive the equations for the first and second laws for open system, the latter of which I present and explain in detail. It's in THERMODYNAMICS, Vanderslice, J.T., Schamp Jr., H.W., Mason, E.A., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1966
In doing so, they note that the second law in open systems is important in biological studies. No kidding. David A. DeWitt points out nicely how living systems fight the effects of the second law, but eventually lose the battle.
There is much more to be said, especially about thermodynamic and informational entropy.
There are a lot of scientists out there who would rather swallow a live, angry rattlesnake head first than admit to ID [Intelligent Design].
--John L. Stahlke
ON THE Y2K BUG:
The Top 10 Things You Won't Have to Worry About With The Y2K Bug
PS. and many things may not apply should our Lord come for His own before then !!!
10. The Bible will still have the answers.
And the number one thing you won't have to worry about with the Y2K bug:
1. Jesus still saves.
"That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus Christ, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved". Romans10:9 KJV
But those who hope is in the Lord will renew their strength. They will soar on wings of eagles, they will run and not grow weary, they will walk and not be faint. (Isaiah 40:31)
IMPORTANT!! Do not forget to visit the index of documents in .PDF format for Acrobat Reader, where you will find interesting documents ready to print.
Índice de boletines
||| General English Index ||| Coordinadora Creacionista ||| Museo de Máquinas Moleculares |||
||| Libros recomendados ||| orígenes ||| vida cristiana ||| bibliografía general |||
||| Temas de actualidad ||| Documentos en PDF (clasificados por temas) |||